Against Monopoly has a great graphic that shows a big part of the problem with our financial sector and our economy.
The four banks shown above are the four largest banks in the U.S.: JP Morgan Chase, Citi, BofA, and Wells Fargo. Together they dominate the financial industry. If you add in Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley, the domination is near complete. They all received large bailouts in the 2008-09 crisis. Today they are much larger than when we entered the crisis. As the graph shows, none of these banks grew so large by “natural” or “organic” means. They didn’t grow because they offered better or more efficient services to customers. They didn’t “win in the marketplace” by competing better. They simply bought the competition. It’s domination by merger. The U.S. banking system which at one time was very competitive and decentralized with literally thousands of very competitive banks is now dominated by a few. We call it oligopoly on the way to monopoly.
When very, very large banks get too big, they become “Too Big To Fail”. That means, if the banks were allowed to fail because of bad decisions, bad management, or bad investments, it would set off a domino effect throughout the economy and financial system. That would punish all of us and not just the bank’s owners. This, of course, is what happened in 2008 when Lehman Brothers was allowed to fail. It set off a financial panic where banks wouldn’t / couldn’t loan to each other (or anyone else). Result: big bailouts of big banks.
But it doesn’t have to be this way. Yes, once we have a “too big to fail” bank and it fails, then there’s pretty much no choice but to bail them out. There are choices about the structure of the bailout. We could have set up the bailouts in a way that the economy wins and the failed managers and bank owners suffered. We didn’t. The Federal Reserve, the Bush administration, and then the Obama administration made it a priority to keep the bank managers and bank owners whole. The economy has suffered from a slow recovery partly as a result.
But bailouts shouldn’t be necessary because we shouldn’t allow the banks to become this big in the first place. Again, we have a choice. We could have prevented some or all of these mergers. The laws are on the books to do it. Washington, following the failed anti- antitrust philosophy of the Chicago school since the 1980’s simply doesn’t challenge many mergers these days. It’s bad for campaign contributions. Besides we’re supposed to believe that a market fairy will make it all right. Instead of challenging and stopping some of these mergers, both the government and The Federal Reserve have actually facilitated and acted as match-maker for many of the mergers. In March 2008, when Bear Stearns failed, The Federal Reserve offered a deal to JP Morgan Chase. If Chase would buy Bear Stearns, The Fed would reimburse Chase for any losses over a set amount. Heads Chase wins. Tails Chase wins. Nice deal.
We have other choices as well. In other industries historically when the private competition in the market led to monopoly or near-monopoly outcomes, the government chose to regulate the industry as a public utility. We did it in the 1920’s and 1930’s with the electrical industry. Your local electrical company wasn’t always a regulated utility. At one time it was ravenous and rapacious private monopoly just like these banks are becoming. When Standard Oil became a monopoly over a hundred years ago, we sued and broke it up into a bunch of other companies.
This complicity in allowing the big banks to become Too Big To Fail is among the types of policies that the protesters of #OccupyWallStreet want changed. Me, too.