US Government Bond Market & Interest Rate Watch – No Signs of Worry Over Deficits, Inflation, or Default

Just a quickie to bring your attention to this, yesterday’s close on the U.S. Government bond market as reported by Google Finance. Note the 10 year bond – less than 2%.

Bond Maturity Yield (effective interest rate) change in points(percent)
3 Month 0.01% 0.00 (0.00%)
6 Month 0.04% +0.01 (33.33%)
2 Year 0.19% +0.01 (5.56%)
5 Year 0.86% 0.00 (0.00%)
10 Year 1.99% -0.07 (-3.40%)
30 Year 3.30% -0.11 (-3.23%)

Why does this matter?

There’s two reasons.  First, the politicians and economists who have been opposed to stimulus efforts, either deficit spending increases or monetary stimulus, have been screaming for well over three years now that  these policies were “reckless” and going to lead to inflation.  Some of the more shrill have been seeing “hyperinflation just around the corner”.  They’ve been saying this for a long time but the inflation and hyperinflation simply aren’t happening.  Why?  Well they’ve argued this because they subscribe to economic theories such as quantity theory of money, crowding out, efficient markets, and a whole host of other neo-classical/neo-liberal theories.  These are the same people that claim Keynesian or post-Keynesian or Modern Monetary Theory is totally wrong.  But the data disagree.  These same critics were the ones pushing Washington to cut the budget and not raise the debt-ceiling limit.  They put concerns about the deficit ahead of concerns about jobs or growth rates despite having over 9% unemployment and over 16% slack in the system. They’re wrong. The data and investors in markets are showing them wrong.  Bond buyers aren’t worried about the U.S. becoming another Greece because they know it’s not possible.  Instead the big money is worried about the lack of economic growth and the potential for banking failures in Europe, and that leads them to want to park their money in the safest thing around: U.S. bonds.

The second reason is because these rates are so low, it’s foolish for the government to not borrow more money and invest it in the country’s future. Readers of this blog and my students should know that the U.S. government is not like a household and doesn’t  face the same budget constraints.  But even if you do believe that, why wouldn’t you borrow money at less than 2% and invest it in projects like infrastructure, innovation, and education that bring a rate of return well above that?  There’s no evidence that the private sector is doing any of this investing and the nation has plenty of idle capacity and idle workers that the private sector has shown it won’t hire.  Why shouldn’t a rational government borrow and invest in growing future GDP?  There’s no reason not to as long as you are sincerely committed to economic growth.

If we consider the real rate of interest (the nominal or face rate of interest minus the expected inflation rate) we get pretty much 0%.  The money is being offered to the government essentially for free, yet opponents of stimulus don’t want to borrow it. Proof of this is that TIPS bonds, which are a variety of U.S. government bond where the interest payments and principle is indexed for inflation, are trading with a negative interest rate these days.  The ironic part is that the very people opposed to government borrowing in this environment are often the same people who claim government should act more like a business.  Any rational business that had profitable investment opportunities and also had access to borrow at essentially 0% would rush to say “where do I sign to borrow?”

The Market Shrugs Off Rating Downgrade, Market Is Worried About Real Economy.

It’s now Monday morning, Aug 8.  It’s been roughly 60 hours since S&P downgraded the rating on U.S. government bonds.  In that 60 hours the media, particularly TV talking head channels, have been breathlessly awaiting what they felt was a certain market panic on Monday. Clearly interest rates would go up they said.

They were wrong.  The early results are in.   U.S. government bond prices have  gone up this morning!  That means government bond yields (interest rates) have actually gone down!  The 10 year bond actually dropped from 2.6% yield on Friday’s close to 2.48% at 9:30 am ET on Monday.

It’s really no surprise if you pay attention to real economic events and not listen to the TV media types who think talking in serious tones is a substitute for actually understanding economics.  First, serious investors, the ones who vote with their money in the market already know everything that S&P knows.  In fact, they know S&P has a really bad track record. So the rating doesn’t mean much to them.

What does matter is what choices or alternatives they have for investing their money.  Right now, the signs from the real economy in both the U.S. and Europe are grim.  Europe is struggling to achieve any growth outside Germany with several major economies actually declining due to their governments’ embrace of budgetary austerity.  The U.K. is on the ragged edge of another recession, again due to government cutbacks. The U.S. is barely registering postive growth with only 0.8% growth rate in the first half of 2011.  It’s clear, too, from the debt ceiling debate that the U.S. won’t be seeing much stimulus anytime soon and likely will join the Europeans in austerity budget cutting. Cutting that will only slow the economy further and possibly drive another recession.  So what theses investors know is that economic growth isn’t likely and that’s bad for stocks.  Stock markets aren’t the place to be now.

Further, Europe is continuing it’s slow-motion debt default crisis issues.  In the past week or so the crisis has spread beyond Greece, Ireland, and Portugal. Now it’s Italy and Spain too.  Even AAA-rated France is finding it’s bonds trading at significantly raised interest rates.  Now the debt crises in Europe are real problems because the nations inside the Euro zone don’t have control over their own currency, they don’t have a central bank, and they borrow in some other currency (Euro) rather than one of their own.  This is unlike the U.S.  The problem is the uncertainty the debt crises in Europe are creating.  The global financial and economic system is once again showing great signs of weakness, fragility, and uncertainty – just like 2007 and 2008.

When uncertainty abounds and about the only sure thing is that growth will be weak at best, it’s time to put your money in something safe and wait it out.  The safest thing in the world (in any volume) is still U.S. government bonds.  So what we have is investors moving into U.S. government bonds because they don’t want to be in anything else.  Everything else is too risky.  So we get increased demand for U.S. bonds and that lowers interest rates on those bonds. This is what financial analysts and economists call a “flight to safety”.